Consolidation and structural repairs
Facing is a way of protecting picture layer temporarily. Small pieces of
paper, fleece or fine natural or synthetic fabric are attached to the surface of
paint layer to protect of further flaking ot chipping.
    "Thomas Morgan Earl of Machen"
                        Anno 1620
The paint surface of this 17th c english portrait has become
detached from the wood picture support, which has
subsequently led to lifting and flaking of the picture layer
Cleaning the verso of a painting
The back of old paintings are not usually smooth and clean. Deposits and residues of
dirt, smoke deposits, adhesive residues, old patching need to be either removed or
allowed for
during the treatment.  Old textiles support will usually have been lined .Lining fabric
occasionally need to be removed - if the lining was poorly executed in the first place, or
if the textile support has suffered deformation or destruction, or the lining canvas is
delaminating . Then the original canvas should be glued to a new fabric - the operation
is known as relining.
Old lining removal
Impregnation - the process of coating of textile supports with natural or synthetic
bonding agents to provide a protective layer in order to consolidate the paint and/or
ground layer.
Patching - square or oblong pieces of textile fabric are glued behind a partial injury
(tear, puncture)  to stabilize the textile support and to form a basis for further
Strip-lining - this is done by gluing a broader strip of fabric behind the turnover or
behind the textile support. It becomes necessary when a  painting needs to be
stretched, but the stretching edge is unstable or only residually present, or when it
has been cut off.
Lining - in lining, a piece of backing fabric is
glued to the reverse of the textile support
because the support is no longer capable of
stabilizing the picture layer, there is advanced
cleavage or the support is partially destroyed.
17th c. German painting before and after
lining process